Zur Übersicht


Forging of copper and iron plates by the Damascus technique

Forging of different steel grades is called Damascus technique and results in a layered composite material called “Damascus steel”. In case of forging different copper alloys it’s called “mokume gane”.

In this paper the joining of copper and iron plates by forging is described. Metallographic investigations showed well bonded interfaces between copper and iron. Only a very small diffusion zone was observed.

To study the diffusion between copper and iron two heat treatments were performed. After 30 minutes at 1000 °C a marginal interaction between Cu-Fe took place. No Cu diffusion in iron was visible and few Fe precipitates in the Cu were observed.

Above the melting point of Cu at 1100 °C an intense interaction between Cu and Fe took place and significant changes at the interface of both were observed. Cu penetrated Fe along the grain boundaries and Fe droplets were formed. At 1100 °C Fe was dissolved in Cu and after cooling small Fe precipitates in the Cu phase were detected. Typical morphologies of liquid metal embrittlement in Fe were observed additionally.


Prof. Dr. Roland Haubner
Technische Universität Wien
Weitere Autoren/Referenten:
  • Dr. Susanne Strobl
    Technische Universität Wien
  • Wolfgang Scheiblechner